Fibrous materials, such as carbon or glass fiber (CFRP, GFRP), fabric (multi-layer composites), fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC), or organic fibers, are used in a wide range of applications and industries (automotive, aerospace, etc.). Imaging techniques like microCT or SEM allow for analysis of those materials; for example, to detect manufacturing imperfections or to quantify microstructures to obtain insights on mechanical properties (strength, stiffness, etc.).
Thermo Scientific Avizo Software is an all-in-one image analysis platform that allows the visualization, processing, and quantification of fibrous materials. Avizo Software enables the detection of manufacturing process damage such as matrix cracking, fiber/matrix debonding, or fiber breakage. Imperfections in the material can be quantified locally (voids, cracks) or globally (cross-sectional distortions or misalignment).
Many industries face the challenge of designing lightweight materials. Sandwich-structured composites are a special class of composite materials with the typical features of low weight, high stiffness, and high strength. The fibers of such material enhance properties of the final part (strength and stiffness) while minimizing weight. Their distribution and direction are crucial factors for the mechanical properties of the final part.
Avizo Software enables analysis of the internal fiber structure to improve these properties and the product development process. Fiber length distribution, diameter distribution, and through thickness orientation variation can be computed.
Royal DSM uses Avizo Software for glass fiber length and orientation analysis of reinforced polymers (GFRP).
Fibers are used in concrete to increase its structural integrity. The characteristics of fiber-reinforced concrete change with varying fiber material geometries, distributions, orientations, and densities.
Avizo Software enables characterization of the tensile strength of the FRC by identifying the fibers and providing their average orientation. Further quantification is performed to analyze porosity distribution in the concrete, based on pore network modeling techniques.
Voids concentrate stress points in materials and can initiate cracks in composite materials. Therefore, volume fraction information and other microstructural characteristics such as spatial distribution and aspect ratio are of high value.
In this example, the correlation between matrix cracks and fiber density is analyzed. Fiber density is mapped on the segmented model. Density is low around matrix cracks (voids). Visual inspection allows for verification that voids are smaller than the gaps they create between fibers.
Evaluation of material performance is of high importance. The ability to predict where damage occurs and how it evolves is critical in many industries. The nature of damage evolution captured in this study helps guide the design of a 3D composite with more resistance to fatigue damage.
With the aim to prevent global food security issues, optimization of the design of fertilizer granules for plant breeding and soil quality enhancement is an important topic of research. MicroCT scans of the plant from germination to maturity allow for visualization and analysis of the interactions of root and fertilizer to inform the design process.
However, segmenting roots from X-ray tomography data is highly challenging for plants such as wheat, due to their fine roots and a density range similar to pore-water and organic matter found in the surrounding soil. The powerful XFiber extension of Avizo Software enables correlation of roots based on the greyscale information and automatically classifies them. Root length and diameter can then be computed to assess mean growth root rate per fertilizer.
The XFiber extension for Avizo Software provides dedicated tools for fiber analysis: