Antibiotics, or antibacterials, are antimicrobial drugs used to treat or prevent bacterial infections. Antibiotics are heralded as the medicinal heroes of the 20th century. However, their effectiveness and accessibility has led to overuse and, in recent years, consequent antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotics are divided into classes based upon their method of production or bactericidal method of action. They may be produced biologically (fermentation), biologically and chemically (semi-synthetic), or by chemical synthesis alone.
Antibiotics produced through fermentation processes are less predictable, less controllable and more complex than synthetic antibiotics. For this reason the variability in products derived from fermentation is often greater than products derived by chemical synthesis. The impurity profile of a fermentation product may also be more complex and less predictable than that of a synthetic product.
One of the most common antibiotic groups which is biologically synthesized are the aminoglycosides. An aminoglycoside is a molecule composed of a sugar group and an amino group.
Streptomycin was the first aminoglycoside antibiotic discovered and used in clinical therapy. These antibiotics are now widely used as clinical and veterinary medicines to treat bacterial infections because of their protein synthesis inhibition capability, leading to cell death. However, these antibiotics can have serious side effects and cause varying degrees of toxicity. It is important to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methods to characterize and quantify drug purity and detect minor degradants or impurities. Based on the nature of their production (fermentation), there are often mixtures of related components (congeners, isomers) and fractions which must be monitored and controlled.
|Column||Acclaim AmG C18, 3 µm|
|Dimensions||4.6 x 150 mm|
|Mobile Phase A||100 mM TFA|
|Mobile Phase B||Acetonitrile|
|Flow Rate||1 mL/min|
|Inj. Volume||5 µL|
|Detection||Corona Veo RS (Filter = 5.0s; Evaporation Temp = 35 °C; Data Rate = 5 Hz; Power Function = 1.00)|
|Sample||Gentamicin (1 mg/mL)|
As well as being structurally-related, many aminoglycoside antibiotics are actually synthesised from one another. For example, sisomicin is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside isolated from the fermentation broth of Micromonospora. Netilmicin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic prepared from sisomicin. Both sisomicin and netilmicin are mainly used in the treatment of severe infections, particularly those resistant to gentamicin. Etimicin is semi-synthesized from gentamicin C1a, and so on.
Analysis of aminoglycosides and their related impurities is often achieved by ion-pairing reversed-phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), based on their hydrophilic and positively charged nature. However, due to the lack of a suitable chromophore, aminoglycosides cannot be detected by ultraviolet (UV). Corona charged aerosol detectors (CAD), evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD), mass spectrometers (MS), and electrochemical detectors are generally used to detect these compounds without prior derivatization.
|Column||Acclaim RSLC PA2, 2.2 µm Analytical (2.1 x 100 mm)|
|Mobile Phase A||0.025:95:5 HFBA:DI water:acetonitrile|
|Mobile Phase B||0.3:95:5 TFA:DI water:acetonitrile|
|Flow Rate||0.45 mL/min|
|Inj. Volume||1.0 µL|
|Detection||CAD (Corona ultra RS, nebulizer temperature 15 °C, low filter, 60 Hz data collection rate)|
The USP monographs for some aminoglycoside drug substances (and drug products made from them) often involve high pressure anion exchange (HPAE) ion chromatography (IC) assays with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD).
|Column||Dionex CarboPac PA1 guard, 4 x 50 mm|
Dionex CarboPac PA1 guard, 4 x 250 mm
|Eluent||2 mM KDH|
|Eluent Source||Dionex EGC-500 KOH cartridge, with CR-ATC 600 trap column, Dionex high pressure degasser|
|Flow Rate||0.5 mL/min|
|Column Temp.||30 °C|
|Detector Compart.||30 °C|
|Inj. Volume||20 µL|
|Detection||iPAD, AAA-Direct Au disposable electrode, 0.002" thick gasket|
|Reference Electrode||pH/Ag/AgC1, pH mode|
|Waveform||AAA-Direct, versus pH, 1.67 Hz|
Chemically synthesised antibiotics often involve a number of intermediate compounds in their preparation, and these may remain as impurities in the final product. Chemical antibiotics are usually assayed by HPLC with UV detection, but where a chromophore is absent in either the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or impurities, IC with suppressed conductivity detection is considered the best alternative for selective determination.
|Column||IonPac CG19 Guard, 2 x 50 mm|
IonPac CS19 Analytical, 2 x 250 mm
|Eluent Source||EGC-500 MSA with Dionex CR-CTC 500|
|Flow Rate||0.25 mL/min|
|Inj. Volume||100 µL|
|Conc Column||Dionex IonPac TCC-ULP1|
|Detection||Suppressed conductivity, Dionex CSRS 300, 2 mm, 7 mA, recycle mode|
Semi-synthetic antibiotics generally have fewer impurities than their biological counterparts. Impurities may include fermented starting material with related impurities, synthesis by-products, synthesis intermediates, and degradation products.
Beta-lactam antibiotics are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. These antibiotics function through the inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Following extensive use, some bacterial populations have shown ability to develop resistance to beta-lactams and become more virulent.
While beta-lactam antibiotics are similar to one another in many ways, they may differ in pharmacokinetics, antibacterial activity, and potential to cause serious allergic reactions. Some beta-lactam intermediate compounds and derivatives (from fermentation and/or synthesis) also possess similar sensitization and cross–reactivity properties. Beta-lactam intermediate compounds, such as β-lactam antibiotic API precursors, can undergo molecular changes or purification before use in manufacture. As a result of these changes, the intermediate compounds may develop antigenic characteristics that can produce allergic reactions. Drug manufacturers are required to take steps to control for the risk of cross-contamination and impurities for all beta-lactam products.
Often beta-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanate (clauvulanic acid) and sulbactam are co-formulated with beta-lactam antibiotics to increase their effectiveness through the counteraction of bacterial resistance. Impurities associated with the inhibitor as well as the antibiotic therefore need to be controlled and monitored.
|Column||IonPac AG11, AS11, 2 mm|
|Eluent||3 mM KOH from 0 to 10 min,|
3 to 60 mM KOH from 10 to 10.1 min,
60 mM KOH from 10.1 to 20.1 min
|Eluent Source||EGC II KOH with CR-ATC|
|Flow Rate||0.25 mL/min|
|Inj. Volume||5 µL|
|Detection||Suppressed conductivity, ASRS 300 2 mm, recycle mode,|
2 mA suppressor current during 3 mM KOH,
switch to 38 mA at 10.1 min
|Samples||Clavulanate with and without 4 µg/mL (0.8 %)|
|Peaks||2-Ethylhexanoic acid (4 µg/mL – 0.8 %)|
Antibiotics are heavily used in the production of biopharmaceuticals. Mammalian cell lines that express biotherapeutic proteins, such as antibodies, must be maintained over several weeks. They are fed with culture media supplemented with various vitamins, growth factors, and antibiotics to avoid contamination and growth failure. Testing of residual antibiotics in the product is required to ensure patient safety.
|Column||Acclaim PolarAdvantage II (PA2) Guard Cartridge, 5 µm, 4.6 x 10 mm (P/N 069699)|
|Mobile Phase||DI water|
|Flow Rate||1.0 mL/min|
|Inj. Volume||1500 µL on the on-line SPE cartridge|
|Column||Acclaim 120, C18, 3 µm Analytical, 3.0 x 150 mm (P/N 063691)|
|Mobile Phase||Phosphate buffer/CH3CN (85:15. v/v)|
|Flow Rate||0.6 mL/min|
|Autosampler Temp.||4 °C|
|Column Temp.||30 °C|
|Detection||UV absorbance at 247 nm|
Learn more in this applications notebook, which has been compiled to help the pharmaceutical scientist by providing a wide range of application examples relevant to the analysis of antibiotics.
Discover a HPAE-IPAD method for the determination of kanamycin A, kanamycin B, and tobramycin using the high-pressure-capable Dionex Integrion HPIC system.
This study describes a high-performance separation of gentamicin congeners and their related compounds using ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC).
Discover how modern ion chromatography solutions are perfect for the pharmaceutical laboratory and aligned with pharmacopeial monograph modernization.
(click title for methods)
|Cefadroxil (Cefadroxyl, Cephadroxyl, Cephadroxil)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefalexin (Cephalexin)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefaloridine (Cephaloridine)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefazolin (Cephazolin, Cefazoline, Cephazoline)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefepime (Cephapime)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefotaxim (Cefotaxime, Cephotaxime, Cephotaxim)||HPLC, IC|
|Cefradine (Cephradine)||HPLC, IC|
|Ceftazidime (Cephtazidime)||No references||HPLC|
|Clavulanate (Clavulanic acid; beta lactamase inhibitor)||IC|
|Kanamycin B (Bekanamycin)||IC|
|Neomycin (Neamine, Paromamine)||HPLC, IC|
|Penicillin G||HPLC, IC|
|Penicillin V||HPLC, IC|